The town is named after Charles Robert Darwin, English naturalist and researcher who is considered part of Evolution. In 1831, aboard the Beagle he visited the coast of Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego and the Pacific Islands.
Darwin railway station was opened on June 30, 1898, with the name of Choele Choel. A year later, on July 1, 1899 it was left to the public service of the line linking Bahía Blanca with Neuquén.
The intensification of trade and production on the island of Choele Choel, prompted Southern Railway authorities to build, in 1908, a new railway station which, curiously, was named Darwin station. Thus, Darwin was the railway station of the town and island of Choele Choel and around the station Choele Choel the nascent village was named after Darwin.
The drawbacks and difficulties caused in receiving merchandise and mail prompted neighbors to request a change of names. The confusing situation was settled by a decree on May 18, 1911, which resolved that "the Choele Choel station will be referred to as Darwin, and this as Choele Choel".