The basis of the colonization of the lower Chubut River valley came with the Welsh, but late nineteenth century other immigration flows came to the valley, the most numerous were of Italian and Spanish.
The contingent arrived in the first instance by sea, and then in the early decades of the twentieth century by land. The main reason of their arrival was the railway construction and the possibility offered by the area to develop different skills.
On October 16, 1902 was created in Trelew the "Italian Society of Mutual Aid." At the end of each of the World Wars, new contingents of Italians arrived in the region.
Today is a very well established community. Italian costums were added to the welsh. There are also important artistic expressions by members of the community, especially music, singing, dancing, without forgetting the importance of culinary art that has great influence in the region and extends to members of other communities.
Among the prominent Italians for their work, their influence and commitment to the new home, aptly named Father Juan Muzio of the Salesian Congregation, founder of important educational centers, Don Francisco Pietrobelli, organized community enthusiast who founded the Colonia Sarmiento Comodoro Rivadavia, in the south of the province, was an active participant in the tournament Eistedfod of the time, and developed journalistic activities as a correspondent for the newspaper La Prensa.
The colonization attempts of the Spanish Crown date back to 1535 with the issuance of Simón de Alcazaba and Soto Mayor, who founded the Province of Nueva León in what is now Puerto Camarones (250 km south of Trelew). Also the project of Juan de la Piedra and Francisco de Viedma, who in 1779 founded Puerto San José, on the Gulf of the same name, and Fuerte de la Candelaria, near the Gulf.
Francisco de Viedma left then north and founded Carmen de Patagones, along the Negro River (the only colony that still remains of those early Spanish attempts), while Juan de la Piedra finally went to Montevideo, Uruguay.
In San Jose only a few men managed to remain dedicated to livestock and to a lesser extent, agriculture to survive. But in 1810, Aborigines burned the fort and killed almost all the inhabitants. A few escaped and made their way to Carmen de Patagones.
Between 1880 and 1914 arrive, repeating the history of the Italians, the first Spanish who settled in urban centers for commerce and some in rural areas. In 1914 there were approximately 3300 Spanish in the valley.
Established in the area they founded institutions. Thus were born in every village, the Spanish Society, which called for its partners for cultural, social and health services. They also created newspapers as "La unión española" and "Avisador comercial", a popular library and Spanish casino, making the increased activity in Trelew.
The strength and determination allowed them to build in the important areas where the community could gather for arts and call companies that came from Buenos Aires and even Europe.
The halls and theaters of the association of Italian and Spanish can be found in all urban centers of the valley of Chubut.